About Canada

So what do you know of Canada?. A lot of questions come to mind – what, where, why, how and so on….

Well, let’s take one step at a time. In this page, we would like to introduce you to Canada and why it’s a good country to settle down. In hindsight every country has its own pros and cons, so why opt for Canada?

In the below sections, we will briefly touch upon some key areas related to Canada.

Canada and its Flag:

The name Canada is from the Saint-Lawrence Iroquoian word Kanata, which means village, settlement or land.

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Canada’s flag was officially adopted on February 15, 1965 and this day is celebrated annually as the National Flag of Canada day

The maple leaf flag was designed by George Stanley and it was based on the flag of the Royal Military College of Canada. The stylish red maple leaf has been the national symbol of Canada for over 150 years. Red and white are the official colors of Canada.

National Symbols:

  • Animal: Beaver
  • Tree: Maple Tree

Geographic Location & Coverage:

So where is Canada located? If you take a quick glance at the world Map, you will find that Canada is located in the Northern Hemisphere just above United States of America (USA) and is a part of North America. It is surrounded by  Pacific Ocean on the West Coast, Arctic Ocean at the North and Atlantic Ocean on the East Coast

It covers 9,093,507 square kilometers of land and 891,163 square kilometers of water, making it the 2nd largest nation in the world with a total area of 9,984,670 square kilometers. 9% of Canada’s surface is covered with fresh water.

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Population:

Canada’s original inhabitants originated in Asia, who crossed the Bering Strait between Alaska and Russia. As time progressed, various settlements arrived from Britain, France and Europe via explorers and navigators though sea. Later, there were various battles between the British, French and the Aboriginal Indians to take control over various parts of Canada.

Early immigration laws in the 20th century favoured British, American and European immigrants. The amendment to the immigration laws in 1960 saw an influx of diverse immigrants especially from Asia, Africa and Caribbean Islands. Canada now has the highest per capita immigration rate in the world.

As per Statistics Canada, 2016 Censuses of Population, the population is 35 million which was a 11.2% increase in total population since 2006. The main increase in population was in British Columbia by 24% followed by Nunavut by 22% and Yukon @18%.

There were 320,932 were immigrants in 2015-2016 and the top destination province was Ontario.

Majority of the Canadian population is concentrated in areas close to the Canada-USA border such as Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta which accounts for 86% of the country’s population.

Provinces:

Over its history, Canada’s international borders have changed several times, and the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories.

Ten Provinces:

 # Province Capital Abbreviation of the Province names

1

Alberta

Edmonton

AB

2

British Colombia

Victoria

BC

3

Manitoba

Winnipeg

MB

4

New Brunswick

Fredericton

NB

5

Newfoundland and Labrador

St John’s

NL

6

Nova Scotia

Halifax

NS

7

Ontario

Toronto

ON

8

Prince Edward Island

Charlottetown

PE

9

Quebec

Quebec city

QC

10

Saskatchewan

Region

SK

Three Territories:

 # Territories Capital Abbreviation of the Territories names

1

Northwest Territories Yellowknife NT
2 Nunavut Iqaluit

NU

3 Yukon Whitehorse

YU

The Capital of Canada => OTTAWA

The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.

Government:

Canada became independent on July 1, 1867 with the passage of the British North America Act giving permission to Canada to create a confederation.

The Canadian Government is a bilingual government which is English and French. There are three levels i.e. Federal, Provincial & Territorial and Municipal (City).

a) Federal : The Prime Minister heads the federal government and is based in Ottawa. It deals with national and international matters e.g. taxes, rails, shipping, etc

b) Provincial: It’s lead by Premier for each province/territory. They have the power to change their laws and manage their own public lands and in charge of education, health care and road regulations

c) Municipal: The Mayors run cities, towns or districts (municipalities). They are are in charge of parks, libraries, local police, etc.

Canada is a constitutional monarchy which means:

  • The Queen or King of Canada is the head of state
  • The Prime Minister is the head of government

The Governor General represents the Queen in Canada. The Sovereign appoints the Governor General on the Prime Minister’s advice. The appointment is usually for five years

Queen                      :        Elizabeth II

Governor-general  :        Julie Payette (in 2017)

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 Prime Minister      :        Sir John A. Macdonald (1st Prime Minister)

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                                  :        Justin Trudeau (29th & Current Prime Minister in 2017)

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As of August 2017, although there are 16 political parties registered with Election Canada, the four major parties include:

  1. Conservative
  2. Liberal and
  3. New Democratic Party (NDP)
  4. Bloc Québécois (BQ)

The last election in 2015 was the 42nd election since independence, out of which Conservatives won 17 of the 42 elections, whereas Liberals won 24 of the 42 elections and the current being the Liberals

Economy:

In the 17th Century, when North America was colonized by British and French, Canada was known for its fur as it was one of the most prized possessions of the wealthy Europeans at that point in time. Later, Europeans settlers discovered Canada had a lot of other things, which could be traded such as lumber, fish, coal, iron and gold as well as farming of wheat and other grains.

Canada is a land of vast distances and rich natural beauty and resources and is thus a world leader in the production of many natural resources such as gold, nickel, uranium, diamonds, lead, and in recent years, crude petroleum, which, with the world’s second-largest oil reserves, is taking an increasingly prominent position in natural resources extraction

In the current era, 75% of Canadians work in the service sector (such as Trades, Healthcare, Finance, education, food & retail and Government) while only a minority work as labour i.e either as farmers or factory workers.

At present the economy of Canada is a highly developed mixed economy with Canada being one of the world’s wealthiest nations with high standard of living and quality of life.

Canadian Currency => CAD

GDP as of 2016 => 1529.76 Billion USD which represent 2.47% of the world economy

GDP growth rate => 1.10%

In terms of GDP, Canada stands at 11th position among the G20 nations.

As of September 2017, unemployment rate in Canada dropped to 6.20% which matched the low of October 2008.

Climate and Weather:

Due to vast size and geographic locations as well as various landscapes, the weather varies all over Canada from the coastal regions to the prairie provinces to the mountains in the west which is turn is very different from the eastern deciduous forest area.. Canada’s climate is not as cold and freezing all year around as many believe.

There are four main seasons in Canada => Summer, Spring, Fall & Winter. In winter, temperatures fall below freezing point throughout most of Canada, whereas the South-Western coast has a relatively mild climate e.g. Vancouver. Along the Arctic Circle, mean temperatures are below freezing for seven months a year. If we go north, the winters can be very brutal where snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year and in the far-north, it could be for nine months or more. However, global climate change is also affecting normal weather patterns.

For more information on the above topics, click on the below link

http://www.simplywildcanada.com/wild-canada/climate-weather/

http://www.worldatlas.com/na/ca/where-is-canada.html

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/12-581-x/2017000/pop-eng.html

http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/newcomers/before-government.asp

http://www.thecanadaguide.com/basics/the-economy/

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/16-002-x/2007003/10454-eng.htm

https://tradingeconomics.com/canada/unemployment-rate

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